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Executive Producer (  E.P. )

The role of the Executive Producer is to oversee the work of the producer on behalf of the studio, the financiers or the distributors. They will ensure the film is completed on time, within budget, and to agreed artistic and technical standards. An Executive Producer may be a producer who has raised a significant proportion of a film's finance, or who has secured the underlying rights to the project. In major productions, the Executive Producer may be a representative or CEO of the film studio. In smaller companies or independent projects they may be the creator or writer.Typically, Executive Producers are not involved in the technical aspects of the filmmaking process, but have played a crucial financial or creative role in ensuring that the project goes into production. There may be several Executive Producers on a film who may take the lead role in a number of areas, such as development, financing or production.

Responsibilities:
Executive Producers must be excellent negotiators. They need a keen business sense, and an intimate knowledge of all aspects of film production, financing, marketing and distribution. 

Executive Producers are responsible for the overall quality control of productions. They are part of the team who are responsible for selecting marketable projects. They lead the production. On some productions the Executive Producer role may be combined with other roles, so that as well as raising the finance they may also be responsible for managing the budget during production.

On serial dramas, TV and some entertainment programs, experienced and well known writers may also be credited as Executive Producers. On current affairs and news programming, the Executive Producer role is often combined with that of the program editor. 

Executive Producers must be able to identify commercial, marketable projects. Executive Producers have overall responsibility for the successful financing and marketing of these projects. They play a key role in ensuring that projects eventually become broadcast programs.

During production Executive Producers may be involved in some aspects of scripting, casting, and crewing. Executive Producers often work on a number of projects simultaneously.

They are experienced industry practitioners, who have usually worked previously for a number of years in any one of a variety of roles, such as producer, writer, director or script editor. Most have some hands on experience of producing.


Line Producer

The Line Producer is one of the first people to be employed on a film's production by the producer and executive producers. A Line Producer is a key member of the production team for a motion picture. Typically, a Line Producer manages the budget of a motion picture. Alternatively, or in addition, they may manage the day to day physical aspects of the film production, serving a role similar to the unit production manager. Line Producers usually do not act as part of the creative team for a picture. Because Line Producers work on location, they don't work on more than one film at a time (unlike other producer roles). A Line Producer may also hire key members of the crew, negotiate deals with vendors, and is considered the head of production. Line Producers are rarely involved in the development of the project, but often play a crucial role in costing the production in order to provide investors with the confidence to invest in the project. As soon as the finance has been raised, the Line Producer supervises the preparation of the film's budget, and the day to day planning and running of the production. Line Producers are usually employed on a freelance basis. They must expect to work long hours, though the role can be financially very rewarding. Career advancement is based on their experience and reputation. Where a Line Producer has a creative input to the production, he or she is often credited as a coproducer.
Responsibilities:
Line Producers are in charge of all the business aspects of the physical production of films. They are called Line Producers because they cannot start work until they know what the 'line' is between the 'above-the-line' costs, which relate to writers, producers, directors and cast, and the 'below-the-line' costs which include everything else, e.g., crew salaries, equipment rentals, development costs, locations, set design and construction, insurance, etc. Line Producers are usually recruited onto the production team during the later stages of development. They are given the script and asked to assess the likely 'below the line' cost of the production which involves breaking down the screenplay into a schedule - a timetable for the film shoot that shows how long it will take to shoot each scene. From this schedule the Line Producer can accurately estimate the cost of each day's shooting, and produce a provisional budget estimating the total amount of funding required. Once the producer and executive producers have raised the required finance, the film can go into pre-production. 

During pre-production Line Producers work closely with the director, production manager, first assistant director, art director and other heads of department to prepare the production schedule and budget, and to set the shoot date. Line Producers oversee all other pre-production activities, including hiring the production team, setting up the production office, location scouting, ensuring compliance with regulations and codes of practice, sourcing equipment and suppliers, selecting crew, engaging supporting artists and contributors, and monitoring the progress of the art department and other production departments. 

During production Line Producers hand over control of the final budget to the production accountant, and delegate the day to day operation of the production office to the production manager and production coordinator. However, Line Producers are ultimately responsible for overseeing all activities, and for ensuring that the production is completed on time and within budget. This requires setting up and implementing financial monitoring systems, controlling production expenditure, controlling production materials, and monitoring and controlling the progress of productions. Line Producers usually allow a 10% contingency in the budget to cater for unforeseen circumstances, and spend much of their time juggling figures and resources. Line Producers are responsible for certain health and safety procedures, and for sorting out any insurance claims. At the end of the shoot, the Line Producer oversees the 'wrap', or winding down, of the production. 

Skills:
Line Producers must possess an in-depth knowledge of scheduling and budgeting, and of all the physical and technical processes of filmmaking. They need excellent industry contacts, and must command the respect of the production crew. Exceptional communication skills are required, as well as the diplomacy to balance the creative expectations of the director, artists and creative personnel with the financial resources available. They always need to plan for the worst, while simultaneously being able to inspire others to excel in their work. Unlike producers, Line Producers are not responsible under health and safety legislation for setting up health and safety procedures; however, they are required to carry out risk assessments according to regulatory requirements. They must therefore know how to identify the hazards in the production environment, to assess the level of risk, to recommend action, and to carry out a review of their assessment. 

Qualifications/Experience:
No qualifications can prepare anyone completely for this hugely demanding role. Line Producers must have considerable industry experience, which can only be acquired by working for a number of years in film, television and/or commercial production. Individuals usually progress to the role of Line Producer by working their way through a variety of roles in assistant direction, location management and/or the production office. Many start their careers as runners or production assistants. Line Producers must also attend the required health and safety courses.






Associate Producer


Duties




What do Associate Producers do?An Associate Producer position can often be an entry level one. Often referred to as the 'AP', an Associate Producer generally assists the producer in putting the TV program or film together. Duties may include writing, editing, organizing scripts, running the teleprompter in news casts, or helping the editor by making beat calls. 

An Associate Producer needs good writing and editing skills, and may often be called upon to make simple editorial decisions when editing video by choosing the shots that match the copy. The Associate Producer will generally be required to rewrite wire copy, and may also be responsible for cueing up tapes, and making sure scripts are in order.

The Associate Producer may also pitch story ideas, help guide the editorial content of the program, assist with promotions, handle some bookings as well as manage the growing tape needs on the program. The role may also have the responsibility for assisting with the show's or film's webpage.


​Associate Producers are usually individuals within production companies who have played a significant role in the development of the script or screenplay.

They may also have helped in the packaging process or contributed important creative ideas to the production. Sometimes they are a Producer or a senior Script Editor who helps with the final drafts of the screenplay and without whom the film may not be financed.

The term Associate Producer is also sometimes used to describe a Producer from a smaller production company which is co-producing the film. They may have raised some funding for the project, but not enough to get an Executive Producer or Co-Producer credit.

Associate Producers take on responsibilities delegated to them by the Producer. They work on the development and pre-production stages, and on the production. Duties can range from supervising the production design team or post production, or co-ordinating the work of visual effects companies.

They also carry out any production work that is not covered by one of the other production roles (e.g. Executive Producer, Co-producer, Line Producer).​






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Camera Department [Director of Photography]


Camera Assistant (1st AC) – The 1st AC is the chief assistant to the camera operator. The 1st assistant camera person is in charge of measuring and pulling focus during filming. The 1st AC also threads the film through the camera when a new magazine is loaded. This person also helps setup and build the camera, as well as maintain and clean the camera and lenses.


Camera Assistant (2nd AC) – The 2nd AC is also known as the loader. The 2nd assistant camera person is primarily responsible for loading and unloading the new rolls of film into the different magazines, as well as maintaining and filling out all the camera reports for the film lab. This person also runs the slate or clapper to maintain sync and the correct labeling for each and every shot.


Camera Operator – The camera operator physically controls and operates the camera during filming, under the direction of the D.P. (Director of Photography). The camera operator works closely with both A.C.’s as well. The camera operator controls the shot’s framing, and the camera movements as instructed by the director of photography.


Camera Operator (Aerial) – The aerial photographer or camera operator is qualified and equipped to film aboard aerial devices. This usually refers to small airplanes and helicopter filming, but more recently, the use of drone cameras are being widely used as well.


Camera Operator (Jib Arm / Crane) – This person is responsible for setting up and operating the mechanical camera crane also known as the “jib arm”. The jib arm is primarily used for large establishing shots that require substantial elevation and smooth motion.



Data Wrangling – This is a relatively new job position that has been created in response to the popular use of digital video formats. The data wrangler is usually responsible for organizing, labeling, downloading, duplicating and reformatting the digital storage disks for use on set and the editing room.


Digital Imaging Technician – This is another new job position that was created in response to the popular use of high-end digital video formats. The digital imaging technician uses various image manipulation methods to achieve the highest possible image quality during the production. This person usually manages the transferring and storage of the image data as well.


Director of Photography – The director of photography (D.P.) is in charge of the overall visual look of the film, as seen through the camera. They recommend which cameras and lenses to use for the production. They design the shot’s framing, and the camera movements in conjunction with the director. They are also in charge of the camera crew, lighting design and collaborating with the gaffer.


Photographer / Production Stills – This person takes still photographs and essentially documents the behind-the-scenes making of the production. Often, this person photographs images used for marketing purposes such as movie posters and DVD box art.


Steadicam Owner / Operator – The steadicam is a camera mounting device that utilizes a mechanical arm attached to a body harness to provide extremely smooth hand-held shots. The steadicam operator is responsible for setting up and operating the steadicam during production. Most steadicam operators are very physically fit due to the amount of strength and endurance needed to operate the steadicam.


Videographer – This person creates the video that essentially documents the behind-the-scenes making of the movie. This video isn’t normally used in the final version of the film. It’s only used for the purposes of documentation.




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Editing Department


Editor - A film and video editor is a highly skilled film industry employee who edits movies or videos. The success or ultimate failure of the production lies in their hands. The final production must be a coherent project that incorporates the story line and personality of the starring actors. Many in the industry consider film editing to be an art that often goes unnoticed and unappreciated, with some dubbing film editing as 'the silent art'. The history of film editing is a long trek, going back to the early heydays of Hollywood. As technology grew, the job descriptions of film editors expanded, to include the field of video editors.



Transportation Department



Captains / Gang Boss
– The transportation coordinator, or gang boss, organizes and provides a variety of vehicles and transportation for all crew, equipment and actors to and from the filming locations. The transportation coordinator/captain deploys the appropriate vehicles and drivers at the proper times to keep the production on schedule and on budget. They also work closely with the locations manager in attaining the proper parking permits and parking locations for all vehicles.

Transportation Driver – The transportation driver works under the supervision of the transportation captain. Transportation drivers physically drive and operate all provided production vehicles to and from the filming locations. This includes the transport of all crew, equipment and actors safely to and from the film set while staying on schedule. Types of production vehicles may include cube trucks, passenger vans, stake beds, flatbeds, limos, cars or any other needed production vehicle.









 



 

 

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Art Department [Production Designer]


Art Directors
– The art director works with the production designer and is responsible for the design and construction of a movie set. They are essentially assistants to the production designer and help construct the “look” and “feel” of the movie.

Prop Maker – Prop makers and sculptors construct unique and specialized set props that are too difficult to attain, or too expensive to buy. This person builds these needed props from scratch using various materials that may include styrofoam, plastics, electronics, metals, woods or glass types of materials. This person is usually skilled in a wide variety of machining, construction and sculpting techniques.

Prop Master – The prop master acquires, organizes, maintains and accounts for all the various props needed for the production. A prop is basically any set decoration piece that can be moved readily easily. This includes many items like guns, knives, books, phones, dish-ware, food, musical instruments, pets or any other item that needs to be present to fulfill the story line.

Scenic Artist / Painter – The scenic artist is in charge of designing and treating all of the set surfaces. This may include painting, plastering, coloring, texturing or applying any other sort of treatment to the set surfaces to create a look. Often times the scenic artist simulates stone, wood, lettering, metallic or brick on the various sets and scenery.


Set Construction Coordinator / Builder – The construction coordinator supervises the fabrication and physical integrity of the various sets needed as directed by the production designer and art director. This person is also in charge of budgeting and ordering the needed materials for the set designs. The construction coordinator may also be responsible for hiring the carpenters.

Set Decorator / Dresser – The set decorator makes the decisions on what furnishings and other decorations are going to be used on set. This person works closely with the art director and production designer to create the optimal visual environment for filming. This may include various items such as paintings, fabrics, and other non movable decorative set pieces.

Storyboard Artist – The storyboard artist creates a series of illustrations and sketches based on the director’s vision during pre-production. Each sketch represents a different camera set-up. These drawings usually include camera angles, characters and set design. The illustrations are then used to assist the other head departments in understanding their tasks.












Sound Department



Boom Operator / Utility – This person is responsible for properly positioning the microphone boom pole during the actual filming. The boom operator is the assistant to the sound mixer. Many times the boom operator is required to hold the boom pole for several minutes at a time, which can be physically demanding. The boom operator must also be able to follow the actors movements while staying clear of the camera and lights. This makes it a challenging job for achieving the best possible audio.

Sound Mixer
– The sound mixer for film is head of the sound department and is responsible for leveling, monitoring and recording of audio during production. The sound mixer decides which microphones to use as well as placements of the microphones. This person can also mix the various sound tracks and audio signals in real time. A film sound mixer supervises the boom operator and/or sound utility person.



Stunts & FX Department

Pyro Technician / Explosives – Sometimes also known as the armorer, this person is primarily responsible for the handling, maintenance and care of all firearms, weapons and pyrotechnics that are used during filming. This includes all live-action explosives and and battle scene pyro effects. Pyro technicians are usually trained and certified to handle these dangerous props and explosives.[Stunts & FX Department]


Special Effects Coordinator – The special effects coordinator designs and supervises the various effects needed for filming through the use of mechanical and/or optical illusion techniques. The special effects coordinator provides the visual elements needed such as recreating weather elements or assisting with props that break, shatter, collapse, burn, smoke or explode. They also provide the special mechanical rigging that allows you to fly an actor.

Special Effects Technician – A special effects technician works under the special effects coordinator and assists in physically creating the visual elements needed like weather elements, or assisting with props that break, shatter, collapse, burn, smoke or explode. They also help build the special mechanical rigging that allows you to fly an actor.

Stunt Coordinator
– The stunt coordinator manages and coordinates all the dangerous action sequences in a movie that require a stuntman or stunt performer. The stunt coordinator always follows the appropriate safety regulations during filming to ensure the safety of every stunt performer. Types of stunts may include jumping, flipping, diving, free-falling, crashing cars, catching fire, underwater stunts and other dangerous action sequences where stunt doubles are needed.












 



 

 

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Production Department



Producer  – The producer helps organize the entire production. This person helps develop the script into a workable project. They assist with the hiring of actors and key crew members, while keeping track of finances throughout the production. The producer oversees script progress and often assists in creating final distribution plans for the movie.

Assistant Director / 1st AD – The 1st assistant director works with both the production manager and the director to make the shooting schedule efficient as possible. The 1st A.D. breaks the script down into a shooting schedule and also helps manage the scheduling of talent, crew and equipment needed for each shooting day. This person sometimes helps direct the background extras in a scene.

Assistant Director / 2nd AD – The 2nd A.D. works directly with the 1st A.D. to accomplish their duties. The call sheets for each shooting day are created by the 2nd assistant director. The 2nd A.D. also helps manage the scheduling of talent, crew and equipment that is needed for each day. This person also assists in directing the background extras in a movie scene.

Director – The director is the leading creative artist on a movie set. The director works directly with the actors on their performances and has final creative control on almost every aspect of the the film. The director plays a large role in casting, script revisions, shot composing and even editing. Usually, the director is hired by the producer of the film.

Line Producer
– The line producer supervises the entire budget of the movie. Expenses may include celebrity salaries as well as daily costs like location and equipment rentals. The production manager reports to the line producer the current expenses and needs of the production on an ongoing basis.

Production Assistant – Many individuals start their careers in the film industry as a production assistant. A production assistant usually does any general duty or minor task that the production heads may need. Basic duties may include dispersing walkie-talkies, setting up pop-up tents and tables, running basic errands as needed or attaining any other last-minute item that the production might need. It is essential that the P.A. has their own transportation to perform these various errands.

Production Coordinator– A production coordinator is responsible for coordinating the “behind the scenes” logistics, which can include renting equipment, hiring crew members, and coordinating talent. In addition, this crew member may handle the paperwork needed to organize the production. For this reason, the production coordinator is an important crew member in ensuring a production’s goals are on budget and on time.

Production Designer – The production designer works with the director and is primarily responsible for the design and overall visual “look” and “feel” of a movie. This includes the use of costumes, landscapes, props and other visual scenery that could reflect the movie script.

Production Manager – The production manager works closely with the production coordinator. This person helps supervise the organization and distribution of the production budget, crew & equipment scheduling, salaries, day rates, and other office related paperwork. This person reports budget needs to the line producer, while trying to keep the production under budget on a day to day basis.

Production Secretary – The production secretary is the assistant to the production manager. This person assists with the paperwork for the crew & equipment scheduling, time cards & invoicing, crew deal memo’s and other related office materials. The production secretary usually helps complete most of the paperwork needed to properly finish the production.



Script & Video Department [Script & Video Department]



Script Supervisor / Continuity – The script supervisor works closely with the director by taking detailed notes concerning what has been shot, needs to be shot, and also notes any deviations from take to take. He/she also makes sure that the dialogue corresponds with the script. The script supervisor also takes logging notes that are essential in the post production editing process, such as locating shots and finding the best takes. Many times the script supervisor assumes the role of continuity, ensuring the consistency between scenes and shots.

Teleprompter Operator – The teleprompter is a device that mounts to the front of the camera and contains a scrolling text for the actor to read while looking into the lens. This technique is also used by newscasters. The teleprompter operator helps set up the teleprompter on the camera as well as the computer that provides the scrolling text program. This person is usually given the script ahead of time so that they can enter it into their computer before arriving on set.

Video Assist Operator – The video assist person operates the (Video  Recorder) during production. Most film cameras include a video tap that allows  to record and instantly playback what was just filmed. Since you can’t review 35mm film without it getting processed in the laboratory first, this can be an especially useful tool on set. Video assist is the term used to describe this record and playback process. Reviewing the footage instantly allows the director to confirm performances, camera focus, framing, choreography and other elements for accuracy.






 

 

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Food Department



Assistant Food Stylist – The assistant food stylist assists the lead food stylist in the preparations and arrangements of the food. This person usually has an extensive background in cooking, recipe development, and the ability to assist in achieving creative solutions for making the food look the most attractive.


Craft Service – Craft Services are the various snacks and beverages that are provided to the film crew throughout the day. This is separate from catering. The person in charge of craft service sets up and maintains a station near production that provides these snacks and beverages. The craft service person is given a budget prior to attaining all the refreshments.


Food Stylist – The food stylist will prepare and arrange food in an appealing way to be used in photographs, commercials or movies. This person usually has an extensive background in cooking, recipe development, and the ability to achieve creative solutions for making the food look its most attractive.








Lighting & Grip Department



Best Boy – The best boy is the lead electrician on set and is in charge of all the other electricians, similar to how the key grip is in charge of all the grips. The best boy usually operates, adjusts and balances the electrical load on the generator where required. This person is also responsible for distributing the electrical cabling properly providing the required power to each of the lights.


Electrician – The electricians (or juicers) essentially set up and operate all the lighting instruments and cabling as instructed by the best boy or gaffer. This is a physically demanding job due to the large number of heavy lights and cabling often required. Electricians must be knowledgeable of tungsten and HMI lighting as well as changing and installing bulbs properly.


Gaffer – The gaffer is also known as the chief lighting technician. This person is primarily responsible for developing a lighting plan according to the desires of the Director of Photography. The gaffer informs the best boy and key grip on where and which lights are to be placed. The gaffer is in charge of creating the best possible lighting scenario according to the camera framing.


Grip – Grips essentially “shape the light” that is provided by the electricians. This includes creating pattern and shadow effects, coloring light, diffusing light or blocking light. While electricians set up the lights and cabling, grips provide everything else that is built around the lights to create the quality of light that the gaffer desires. They also provide a variety of special rigging, securing and safety measures on set.


Key Grip – The key grip is the lead grip on a film set and in charge of all the other grips. The key grip and best boy collaborate with the gaffer and D.P. to formulate the best tactic for accomplishing a given shot. The key grip oversees the proper camera rigging mechanisms as well as manages the light blocking and diffusing techniques.






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Locations Department



Location Manager – This person is in charge of attaining all the legal permits and other clearances needed to gain proper permission for filming in a particular location. The location manager also takes care of attaining and processing any other location permit fees as well. On some smaller shoots, the location manager assists in coordinating the parking of vehicles.


Location Scout – Quite often the location scout is one of the first crew members to be contacted on a production. The location scout assists in finding the various filming locations according to the producer and director’s desires. Location scouts often have a large database of location photographs to show before traveling to the actual location for filming.





Makeup & Wardrobe Department [Hair & Makeup Department]



Costume Designer – The costume designer makes decisions on which wardrobes and costumes actors will wear based on the script requirements and character portrayals. Costume designers create or choose various clothing patterns, designs, colors, sizes and accessories for each wardrobe used during production. On larger movies, the costume designer has several assistants helping to organize, disperse and maintain all the costumes used by the cast.

Hair Stylist – This person is responsible for styling and maintaining the talent’s hair throughout filming. The hair stylist is usually equipped with all of the appropriate supplies needed for the hair styling process. The hair dresser works in conjunction with the make-up artist to attain the best possible look for the actors and actresses.

Makeup Artist – The makeup artist’s main task is to apply and create a variety of looks on the actors and actresses skin surfaces with makeup, from current trends to classic or period pieces. The makeup artist creates a look according to the director’s desires, often inspired by the characterizations in a story.

Special FX Makeup – The prosthetics or special effects makeup person uses a variety of techniques for applying and gluing different materials such as latex, gelatin and other colorations which are used on the face or skin of an actor. Gore and blood, burns, creatures and aging special effects are the more commonly used prosthetic makeup techniques.

Wardrobe Stylist – The wardrobe stylist works closely with the costume designer, and assists with preparing everything related to the actors clothing, costumes and wardrobe. Common tasks of the wardrobe assistant are maintaining and styling for all the wardrobes worn by the various actors. They also assist in helping to organize, disperse and account for all the costumes used on set.





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